China Media Research - Current Issue

CMRO 11(3)

Issue Vol. 11, No. 3 / July 2015




Internet Jianghu: Emergence of China Alternative Public Sphere

Author(s): Zhongxuan LIN

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Internet is supposed to have natural and inherent relationship with democratization, and is also supposed to act as the main battlefield for the public to fight against the authoritarian. The Internet in China, however, does not serve as the “democratic public sphere” for people to fight against the ruling power directly and roundly; instead, it seems to be a Chinese style term of “Jianghu” – literally means “rivers and lakes” – an “alternative public sphere” for Chinese people. This article was from the perspective of cultural studies, based on the methodology of case study and textual analysis. It took two cases, namely, the Event of South China Tiger Photos and Event of Deng Yujiao, to analyze the cultural practice of Internet events, particularly the expression channels, emotion mobilizations and communication mechanisms of netizens, indicating the emergence of China alternative public sphere and its implication to the state and society. [Zhongxuan LIN: Internet Jianghu: Emergence of China Alternative Public Sphere. China Media Research 2015; 11(3): 1-12]. 1

A Quantitative and Qualitative Overview of Media Ecology in China

Author(s): Jiankang Zhang and Jun Zhou

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Based on an analysis of media ecology studies published in Mainland China between 2000 and 2013, this paper aims to describe the trajectory of development of media ecology in China. Both quantitative review and qualitative analysis of existing literature are conducted in this study. [Jiankang Zhangand JunZhou: A Quantitative and Qualitative Overview of Media Ecology in China, China Media Research 2015; 11(2): 13-20]. 2

Aborigines and Disasters: The Plight of the Aborigines Overlooked by the TV Media during Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan

Author(s): Chao-Chen, Lin

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This paper discusses the limited media coverage on the aborigines living in the mountains who were victims of heavy rainfall and other unusual weather phenomena caused by global warming. This study investigates the TV news coverage on Typhoon Morakot, which ravaged Taiwan in 2009, and found extensive TV media reporting on Taiwan but failed to indicate that up to 80% of the victims were aborigines. Based on content analysis, this paper approaches to identify the logic of the media coverage of the catastrophe. This paper also includes in-depth interviews to understand the situation as recounted by aboriginal survivors. The purpose of this paper is to raise concern towards the relationship between aborigines and future disaster coverage. [Chao-Chen, Lin. Aborigines and Disasters: The Plight of the Aborigines Overlooked by the TV Media during Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. China Media Research 2015; 11(3):21-30]. 3

Representation of Gender Differences between Kawaii/Cartoonish and Simulated Online Role Playing Games in Taiwan

Author(s): Chia-I Hou, Kun-Sun Shiao, Dennis Weng-Jeng Peng

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The research compared official websites of two different genres of online role playing games in Taiwan .One is -Kawaii style (cartoon-like) Online Role Playing Games (KORPGs) aiming to attract females and the other is Simulated Online Role Playing Games (SOPRGs) targeting to males.The study utilized content analysis and found that SORPGs have more masculine themes than KORPGs do. Additionally, SORPGs have more male characters in the main pictures than KORPGs do, and the results indeed accord with the hypothesis of the study. However, it is noteworthy that overall, KORPGs have more female characters than male characters, which is contrary toprevious studies that there were significant sex bias in the number of male versus female characters. The contribution of the paper is that it is the first study that compares two different genres of online role playing games (Kawaii and Simulated styles) in one specific culture. [Chia-I Hou, Kun-Sun Shiao, and Dennis Weng-Jeng Peng: Representation of Gender Differences between Kawaii/Cartoonish and Simulated Online Role Playing Games in Taiwan, , China Media Research 2015; 11(3): 31-41]. 4

Message Strategies and Cultural Values in Popular Online Video Ads in China and the U.S.

Author(s): Fei Xue

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The current study analyzed 520 popular online video advertisements on a Chinese website (YouKu) and an American website (Advertising Age) from January 2013 to January 2014, to explore their differences in advertiser characteristics, advertising format, message strategies, and cultural values. Even though two groups of ads shared many common characteristics, it was found that ads from YouKu were shorter in length, and used more group/social appeals and more tradition/elderly appeals; while ads from Advertising Age used more musical format and more individual/independence appeals. Significant differences were also found in terms of country-of-origin and product categories. [Fei Xue. Message Strategies and Cultural Values in Popular Online Video Ads in China and the U.S. China Media Research 2015; 11(3):42-53]. 5

Best Practices in Communication with Older Adults

Author(s): Linda M. Johnston & Deanna F. Womack

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Many older adults now move to residential settings for care families cannot provide. Effective adjustment requires effective interpersonal and organizational communication to maintain dignity and independence. This article presents a best practices model of effective organizational communication in skilled nursing homes and assisted living residences in the U.S. The authors usedan appreciative inquiry approach and conducted in-depth telephone or face-to-face interviews with 24 individuals representing 11 facilities. 19 were staff such as directors of nursing or other administrators with primary contact with residents’ families. Interviewees also included three residents, three family members, and representatives of three government senior services organizations. Best practices consisted of caring organizational cultures, high-performing organizational teams, and positive communication skills and behaviors including respectful, supportive, and honest communication. The individual communication skills identified were similar to those suggested by interview research in a variety of different countries: China, Ireland, Korea, Slovenia, and Taiwan, as well as the U.S. [Linda M. Johnston & Deanna F. Womack:Best Practices in Communication with Older Adults, .China Media Research 2015; 11(3): 54-64]. 6

Customer Relations in Social Media: Social Media Usage Motives, Expected Responses from Organizations, and Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM)

Author(s): Ming-Yi Wu

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More and more organizations are attempting to use social media as a public relations tool to establish and maintain good customer relations. This study explores customers’ motives for using social media, the responses they expect from organizations, and predictors of positive electronic word of mouth (eWOM). Using a web questionnaire, this study surveyed 17,254 consumers in the United States and uncovered several significant findings. First, the study results suggest that protecting oneself and others from bad companies or products are the top two reasons for consumers to share information in social media environments. Second, the results suggest that many consumers expect companies to change policies if they have negative experiences with the company and make negative comments. An empty apology is the least effective response. Others expect organizations to offer discounts on future products or services or give a refund in these situations. Third, the results of correlation and multiple regression analyses suggest that confidence, integrity, pride, and passion are strong predictors for customers’ positive eWOM. The more engaged a customer is with a brand, the more likely he or she will write positive comments on social media sites about the company, brand, product, or service. The results of this study extend the knowledge about customer relations in social media. [Ming-Yi Wu: Customer Relations in Social Media: Social Media Usage Motives, Expected Responses From Organizations, and Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) .China Media Research 2015; 11(3): 65-72]. 7

The Rapport Management of Sellers: Exploring the Seller-Buyer Relationship in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises of China

Author(s): Yang Cheng

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Drawing on the concept of “rapport management”, this study builds a model to understand the seller-buyer relationship in small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of China. Through conducting in-depth interviews with 25 domestic sellers from 21 companies, together with a 6-month field observation in two local companies, this study supports the importance of building and maintaining rapport for successful businesses in China. Findings identify the rapport management goals, two levels of rapport, and four articulated strategies such as online/offline enjoyable interaction and extrinsic/intrinsic friendship connection. Six common themes including trust, talk, face, favor-giving, information, and expectations are interpreted differently in the discourse of rapport management and represent high/low relationship quality. This paper concludes that rapport in China is an ongoing and dynamic concept which involves the enjoyable interaction stage and friendship connection process with the goal of producing a long-term relationship. [Yang Cheng. The Rapport Management of Sellers: Exploring the Seller-Buyer Relationship in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises of China, China Media Research 2015; 11(3): 73-86]. 8

Chi-Tao WR Network, I-Ching’s Axis of Jen-Yi Centrality-Mutuality, and Strategic Continuity of Human Activism

Author(s): Victor Lux Tonn

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This paper studies the jen-yi orientation and the essential structure of horizontal coordination and vertical hierarchy embodied implicitly in the I-Ching. By embedding the I-Ching’s jen-yi axis of centrality and mutuality in the chi-tao WR network, the system of chi-tao jen-yi axis is created to embrace simultaneously the Confucian doctrine of jen-yi and the Taoist tradition of the self and nature. That is, in the systemic sense, from the basis of chi-tao culture or Type I culture, I-Ching jen-yi axis of centrality and mutuality is created. Furthermore, implicitly by embracing this I-Ching axis as its essential core structure, the system of jen-yi human activism or Type I institution is constructed. Thus, a traditional I-Ching type of harmony and human activism is instituted by injecting the vital energy of the axis of chi-tao jen-yi into human organization. For this system of harmony and human activism, a high-level active state of strategic continuity is reached when the systemic structure is complete and the minds of human elements are bright, enlightened, and in quiescence. [Victor Lux Tonn, Chi-Tao WR Network, I-Ching’s Axis of Jen-Yi Centrality-Mutuality, and Strategic Continuity of Human Activism, China Media Research 2015; 11(2): 87-99]. 9

On Interculturality and Intercultural Communication Competence

Author(s): Xiaodong Dai, Guo-Ming Chen

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Intercultural communication competence (ICC) has been examined from diverse perspectives in recent decades. Although scholars generally agree that ICC consists of affective, cognitive, and behavioral dimensions, there is noconsensus about what it means to be interculturally competent. In addition, while the cultural process has been emphasized by many scholars in theorizing ICC, the focus continues to be on the acquisition of cultural knowledge, rather than how cultures interact and how this dynamic process shapes ICC development. In this paper we highlight the dynamic cultural processby conceptualizing ICC from the perspective of interculturality. Interculturality embodies the multiple connections between cultures, by which interactants endeavor to reduce cultural distance, negotiate shared meanings, and build up intercultural harmony. It constitutes both the interacting process and the desired outcome of intercultural communication. From the perspective of interculturality, ICC can be conceived as the ability to reach reciprocity and mutuality in order to establish harmonious relationships across cultures. We first conceptualize interculturality, then discuss its significance to intercultural communication, and finally re-examine ICC within the frameworkof interculturality and explore its theoreticalimplications. [Xiaodong DaiandGuo-Ming Chen:On Interculturality and Intercultural Communication Competence,China Media Research 2015; 11(3): 100-113]. 10



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